In order to anti-aging, women really do have the money to pay for it, force to pay for it. The anti-aging series is always the most expensive among the major skincare brands, and a bottle of anti-aging cream costs as much as an iPhone X。 An iPhone X can be used for two or three years, a bottle of cream can be used ...... depending on the size of the face, right? These skin care products are useful? Are all those medical beauty treatments useful? Yes. However, if your lifestyle is not healthy, these external means are only the bottom of the barrel.
How does aging happen? Scientists have been trying very hard to figure out how it happens. They have proposed various hypotheses, such as the free radical hypothesis, the cellular aging hypothesis, the inflammation hypothesis, and so on. But so far no single theory has been able to explain all aging phenomena. Of course, it is not that there is no real progress at all. In recent years, scientists have discovered that among the above-mentioned mechanisms of aging, there is always an evil figure - the glycation reaction!
Glycation - the ultimate contributor to aging
In 1912, a French chemist, Louis-Camille Maillard, first described the reaction that would later bear his name, the Merad reaction. This reaction is found everywhere in our daily cooking and diet: When reducing sugars in food, react with amino acids or proteins at room temperature or when heated, a complex series of reactions takes place to produce a brownish-black macromolecular substance called melanin.
Reducing sugars, which are sugars that produce aldehyde and carbonyl groups in alkaline solutions, include all monosaccharides such as glucose, fructose, and glyceraldehyde, as well as disaccharides such as lactose and maltose, and oligosaccharides. Murad reactions don't just happen in the kitchen, they happen in the human body, on your skin! The Merad reaction that occurs in the human body is more commonly known as: glycation.
In this process, a large number of glycation end products (Advanced Glycation End products) are produced - remember the word, AGE, which is spelled exactly the same as the English word "aging" (age) . Numerous studies have confirmed that AGE is the ultimate factor in aging. It may even accumulate in the epidermis, cell membranes, and cardiovascular walls, causing all kinds of harm.
How does glycation hurt you?
1- AGE, a glycation product
The production of AGE does not require the participation of enzymes and there are no auxiliary conditions, as long as the temperature is right, a series of chain reactions will occur everywhere in the body.
2- Glycation of collagen starts around the age of 20
Collagen is familiar to everyone, right? When collagen is glycated, the skin becomes stiff and inelastic because its biological properties are altered. One might ask: if a protein is metabolized just after glycation, and a new normal protein is produced, then nothing is wrong, right?
This is a good question, and AGE deposition does depend on the metabolic rate of protein turnover. But unfortunately! Collagen, and the elastin that intertwines with it in a mesh structure and is responsible for providing the skin with malleability and flexibility, have a long turnover cycle. Collagen has a turnover cycle of up to 10 years.
Glycation of collagen begins around age 20. Modified collagen is deposited between skin cells at an average rate of 3.7% per year, and by the age of 80, modified collagen can account for about 50% of all collagen.
3- Disruption of normal skin metabolism
Due to the non-degradable nature of AGE, it prevents the metabolism of aged proteins and the synthesis of new proteins, thus disrupting the skin's permeability and normal metabolism.
4- Aggravating photoaging
It is already common knowledge that UV radiation from sunlight produces large amounts of oxygen-containing free radicals in the body, thus causing photoaging of the skin. However, glycation stimulates the formation of more free radicals such as superoxide anion, while modified elastin is also almost always found in body parts that have more contact with sunlight, exacerbating photoaging of the skin!
5- Skin cell atrophy, keratin hardening, dullness, and blemishes
Among the above crimes, AGE is the one that makes waves outside the skin cells, but it is also not shy inside the skin cells.
It has been observed that wave proteins in fibroblasts, which are part of the "cytoskeleton", and keratin in keratinocytes, which are an important part of the skin's stratum corneum, are altered by AGE after glycation.
In addition to these two proteins, a growth factor called bFGF, which promotes mitosis in endothelial cells, is also glycated; some important intracellular enzymes, such as hydrolases and antioxidant enzymes, are also glycated. The consequence is skin cell atrophy, keratin hardening, dullness and blemishes.
6- Affects gene expression and stimulates inflammatory response
AGE can bind to receptors on the cell surface and send a series of biological signals to reduce cell proliferation, accelerate apoptosis, affect gene expression, stimulate inflammation and hinder extracellular matrix synthesis.
7- Accelerate cell aging and apoptosis
Telomeres are repetitive sequences of genes at the end of chromosomes in cells. Every time a cell divides, telomeres shorten a bit, and when telomeres are depleted, the cell dies by apoptosis. Some studies have shown that glycation shortens telomeres and accelerates cell aging and apoptosis.
6 suggestions to slow down aging
Like all women, I'm often concerned about whether there's a magic pill that can "whoosh" reverse the glycation process. Unfortunately, although scientists have racked their brains, but there is a miracle product has not yet appeared.
So what should I do now?
1- Quit sugar
Especially to give up sugary soft drinks, delicate cupcakes, afternoon tea in a variety of desserts and so on, they contain sugar, is the worst and worst artificial fructose in sugar, rounded up can be seen as a new drug.
A 2008 study found that after consuming excessive sugar, the release of compounds such as opioid-active peptides and dopamine in the brain of mice was achieved, similar to the reactions caused by addictive substances such as morphine, cocaine, nicotine and alcohol, thus confirming that sugar is also an addictive substance.
So, quitting sugar can be done slowly. If you are already sweet, aggressive withdrawal of sugar may cause withdrawal reactions such as depression, anxiety, inability to concentrate, etc. It is best to gradually reduce your sugar intake over a period of 6 to 8 weeks, starting with one less cookie, one less cup of milk tea, and one less bowl of staple food.
2- Sun protection
In fact, we have already attached great importance to it, have emerged such a great invention as the "face kini", I will repeat: sunscreen not only antioxidant can also resist glycation! Spring, autumn and winter also need to protect against the sun!
3- Eat less fried, grilled and baked foods
The AGE produced in the food by the Merad reaction can be absorbed by the body, the absorption rate is about 10% to 30%, so you should eat less of these high temperature, long processing food.
4- Change the way of cooking
A study initiated by the American Dietetic Association in 2010 showed that the cooking method has an important impact on the AGE content of food.
① Using cooking methods such as steaming, boiling and stewing, less AGE is produced in food. For example, boiled chicken and boiled beef have 60 to 80 percent less AGE compared to grilled meat of the same portion size.
② Treating meat with lemon juice, vinegar, etc. before cooking will also reduce the AGE produced by more than 50%.
5- Quit smoking
A study in 1998 already pointed out that AGE levels in smokers were about 4 times higher than in non-smokers in people who did not have diabetes.
6- Drink more water
Make sure to drink enough 2000ml of water every day.
If you eat too much sugar, your skin deteriorates and you spend all your money for nothing, so you will ...... mourn. From now on, trying to give up sugar is perhaps one of the most important efforts we can make in the face of the erosion of the years.